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Title: How to do everything with your digital camera / Dave Johnson. Author: Johnson, Dave. Shelf: /32/JOH/ ISBN: Publishing Info: New.
Table of contents
- 41 tips and tricks to improve your photography
- Photography for Beginners: A Complete Guide (Updated )
- #1. Set a Budget Before Buying
- Digital Cameras
This filter helps reduce reflections from water as well as metal and glass; it improves the colors of the sky and foliage and will help give your photos the WOW factor. It will do all that while protecting your lens. We recommend Hoya Polarizer Filters for the best combination of performance and price. When photographing landscapes, it helps to create a sense of depth, in other words, make the viewer feel like they are there.
Placing an object or person in the foreground helps give a sense of scale and emphasizes how far away the distance is. Use a tripod if possible, as a small aperture usually requires a slower shutter speed. The simple approach is usually the best in digital photography, and you have to decide what needs to be in the shot, while not including anything that is a distraction.
41 tips and tricks to improve your photography
If possible, choose a plain background — in other words, neutral colors and simple patterns. You want the eye to be drawn to the focal point of the image rather than a patch of color or an odd building in the background. This is especially vital in a shot where the model is placed off center. Flash can look harsh and unnatural especially for indoor portraits. Therefore, there are various ways you can take an image indoors without resorting to flash. Use the widest aperture possible — this way more light will reach the sensor, and you will have a nice blurred background.
Using a tripod or an I. Image Stabilization lens is also a great way to avoid blur. If you absolutely must use flash, then use a flash with a head you can rotate, and point the light to the ceiling on an angle.
Photography for Beginners: A Complete Guide (Updated )
A common alternative is the use of a card reader which may be capable of reading several types of storage media, as well as high speed transfer of data to the computer. Use of a card reader also avoids draining the camera battery during the download process. An external card reader allows convenient direct access to the images on a collection of storage media.
But if only one storage card is in use, moving it back and forth between the camera and the reader can be inconvenient. Many computers have a card reader built in, at least for SD cards. Many modern cameras support the PictBridge standard, which allows them to send data directly to a PictBridge-capable computer printer without the need for a computer. An instant-print camera , is a digital camera with a built-in printer. Such non-digital cameras were popularized by Polaroid in Many digital cameras include a video output port.
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Usually sVideo , it sends a standard-definition video signal to a television, allowing the user to show one picture at a time. Buttons or menus on the camera allow the user to select the photo, advance from one to another, or automatically send a "slide show" to the TV. In January , Silicon Image announced a new technology for sending video from mobile devices to a television in digital form. Some DVD recorders and television sets can read memory cards used in cameras; alternatively several types of flash card readers have TV output capability. Cameras can be equipped with a varying amount of environmental sealing to provide protection against splashing water, moisture humidity and fog , dust and sand, or complete waterproofness to a certain depth and for a certain duration.
The latter is one of the approaches to allow underwater photography , the other approach being the use of waterproof housings. Many waterproof digital cameras are also shockproof and resistant to low temperatures. Some waterproof cameras can be fitted with a waterproof housing to increase the operational depth range. The Olympus 'Tough' range of compact cameras is an example. Many digital cameras have preset modes for different applications. Within the constraints of correct exposure various parameters can be changed, including exposure , aperture, focusing , light metering , white balance , and equivalent sensitivity.
For example, a portrait might use a wider aperture to render the background out of focus, and would seek out and focus on a human face rather than other image content. Many camera phones and most stand alone digital cameras store image data in flash memory cards or other removable media. Most stand-alone cameras use SD format, while a few use CompactFlash or other types. In January , a faster XQD card format was announced. Photographers can swap one of the memory card with camera-on.
#1. Set a Budget Before Buying
Other unusual formats include:. Most manufacturers of digital cameras do not provide drivers and software to allow their cameras to work with Linux or other free software.
Still, many cameras use the standard USB storage protocol, and are thus easily usable. Other cameras are supported by the gPhoto project. Many cameras, especially high-end ones, support a raw image format. A raw image is the unprocessed set of pixel data directly from the camera's sensor, often saved in a proprietary format.
Adobe Systems has released the DNG format, a royalty-free raw image format used by at least 10 camera manufacturers. Raw files initially had to be processed in specialized image editing programs, but over time many mainstream editing programs, such as Google's Picasa , have added support for raw images. Rendering to standard images from raw sensor data allows more flexibility in making major adjustments without losing image quality or retaking the picture. Recent formats include MP4 , which is based on the QuickTime format and uses newer compression algorithms to allow longer recording times in the same space.
Other formats that are used in cameras but not for pictures are the Design Rule for Camera Format DCF , an ISO specification, used in almost all camera since , which defines an internal file structure and naming. The DCF defines a logical file system with 8. Most cameras include Exif data that provides metadata about the picture. Exif data may include aperture, exposure time , focal length, date and time taken, and location. Digital cameras have become smaller over time, resulting in an ongoing need to develop a battery small enough to fit in the camera and yet able to power it for a reasonable length of time.
Digital cameras utilize either proprietary or standard consumer batteries. As of March [update] , most cameras use proprietary lithium-ion batteries while some use standard AA batteries or primarily use a proprietary Lithium-ion rechargeable battery pack but have an optional AA battery holder available.
The most common class of battery used in digital cameras is proprietary battery formats. These are built to a manufacturer's custom specifications. Almost all proprietary batteries are lithium-ion. In addition to being available from the OEM , aftermarket replacement batteries are commonly available for most camera models. Digital cameras that utilize off-the-shelf batteries are typically designed to be able to use both single-use disposable and rechargeable batteries , but not with both types in use at the same time.
The most common off-the-shelf battery size used is AA. When digital cameras became common, many photographers asked whether their film cameras could be converted to digital.
The answer was yes and no. For the majority of 35mm film cameras the answer is no, the reworking and cost would be too great, especially as lenses have been evolving as well as cameras. For most a conversion to digital, to give enough space for the electronics and allow a liquid crystal display to preview, would require removing the back of the camera and replacing it with a custom built digital unit.
The technology of the time, however, meant that rather than being digital "backs" the bodies of these cameras were mounted on large, bulky digital units, often bigger than the camera portion itself. These were factory built cameras, however, not aftermarket conversions. A few 35mm cameras have had digital camera backs made by their manufacturer, Leica being a notable example. These cameras also tend to be highly modular, with handgrips, film backs, winders, and lenses available separately to fit various needs.
The very large sensor these backs use leads to enormous image sizes. Medium format digitals such as this are geared more towards studio and portrait photography than their smaller DSLR counterparts; the ISO speed in particular tends to have a maximum of , versus for some DSLR cameras. In the industrial and high-end professional photography market, some camera systems use modular removable image sensors.
For example, some medium format SLR cameras, such as the Mamiya D series, allow installation of either a digital camera back or a traditional photographic film back. Most earlier digital camera backs used linear array sensors, moving vertically to digitize the image.
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Many of them only capture grayscale images. The relatively long exposure times, in the range of seconds or even minutes generally limit scan backs to studio applications, where all aspects of the photographic scene are under the photographer's control. Some other camera backs use CCD arrays similar to typical cameras. These are called single-shot backs. Since it is much easier to manufacture a high-quality linear CCD array with only thousands of pixels than a CCD matrix with millions, very high resolution linear CCD camera backs were available much earlier than their CCD matrix counterparts.
For example, you could buy an albeit expensive camera back with over 7, pixel horizontal resolution in the mids. However, as of [update] , it is still difficult to buy a comparable CCD matrix camera of the same resolution.
Rotating line cameras, with about 10, color pixels in its sensor line, are able, as of [update] , to capture about , lines during one full degree rotation, thereby creating a single digital image of 1, Megapixels. The matrix sensor captures the entire image frame at once, instead of incrementing scanning the frame area through the prolonged exposure.
For example, Phase One produces a 39 million pixel digital camera back with a From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Camera that captures photographs or video in digital format. For the military camouflage method using micropatterns, see Digital camouflage.
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Further information: Image sensor. Further information: Image sensor format. Further information: Action camera. Main article: degree camera. Main article: Bridge camera. Main article: Mirrorless interchangeable-lens camera. Main article: Digital single-lens reflex camera. Further information: Rotating line camera and Strip photography. Microdrive CF-II. USB flash drive. Sony's Memory Stick. Main article: Image file formats.